Reference List and Relevant Websites

1. American Academy of Pediatrics. Circumcision Information for Parents. Elk Grove Village: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1995, 1999.

2. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Standards and Recommendations for Hospital Care of Newborn Infants. 5th ed. Evanston, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1971 1989; 84:388-391.

3. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn Report of the Ad Hoc Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics 1975; 56:610-611.

4. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 1st ed. Evanston, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1983

5. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics 1999; 103:686-693.

6. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Circumcision Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision: information for parents.

7. American Academy of Pediatrics. Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics. 1989;84:388-391. [Published erratum appears in Pediatrics. 1989;84:761]

8. Amir J, Ginzburg M, Straussberg R, Varsano I The reliability of midstream urine culture from circumcised male infants. Am J Dis Child 1993; 147:969-970

9. Brown D. Circumcision loses a key endorsement: pediatricians find benefits insufficient. Washington Post. March 2, 1999:A1.

10. Cadman D, Gafni A, McNamee J. Newborn circumcision: an economic perspective.Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Dec 1;131(11):1353-5.

11. Caldwell JC, Caldwell P The African AIDS epidemic. Sci Am 1996; 274:62-68

12. Cameron DW, Simonsen JN, D’Costa LJ, Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type I: risk factors for seroconversion in men. Lancet 1989; 2:403-407.

13. Cancer incidence in five continents Age-standardized incidence rates, four-digit rubrics, and age-standardized and cumulative incidence rates, three-digit rubrics. IARC Sci Publ 1992; 120:8.

14. Circumcision opponents energized by about-face of Academy of Pediatrics. Forward. March 5, 1999:1,16.

15. Craig JC, Knight JF, Sureshkumar P, Mantz E, Roy LP Effect of circumcision on incidence of urinary tract infection in preschool boys. J Pediatr 1996; 128:23-27.

16. Cupp MR, Malek RS, Goellner JR, Smith TF, Espy MJ The detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in intraepithelial, in situ, verrucous and invasive carcinoma of the penis. J Urol 1995; 154:1024-1029.

17. Dagher R, Selzer ML, Lapides J Carcinoma of the penis and the anti-circumcision crusade. J Urol 1973; 110:79-80.

18. Dean AL Jr Epithelioma of the penis. J Urol 1935; 33:252-283.

19. Escala JM, Rickwood AM. Balanitis. Br J Urol 1989; 63:196-7.

20. Fussell EN, Kaack MB, Cherry R, Roberts JA. Adherence of bacteria to human foreskins. J Urol. 1988;140:997-1001. Comment, page 1001.

21. Ganiats TG, Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. Routine neonatal circumcision: a cost-utility analysis. Med Decis Making. 1991 Oct-Dec;11(4):282-93.

22. Gerber GS Carcinoma in situ of the penis. J Urol 1994; 151:829-833.

23. Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH Jr. Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics. 1982 Apr;69(4):409-12.

24. Halperin DT, Bailey RC. Male circumcision and HIV infection: 10 years and counting. Lancet 1999 Nov 20;354(9192):1813-5. No abstract available.

25. Hamburg M. Statistical Analysis for Decision Making. 4th ed. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1987:565-567.

26. Hansson S, Bollgren I, Esbjorner E, Jakobsson B, Marild S. Urinary tract infections in children below two years of age: a quality assurance project in Sweden. The Swedish Pediatric Nephrology Association. Acta Paediatr. 1999 Mar;88(3):270-4.

27. Herzog LW Urinary tract infections and circumcision: a case-control study. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143:348-350
28. Heyns CF, van Vollenhoven P, Steenkamp JW, Allen FJ Cancer of the penisa review of 50 patients. S Afr J Surg 1997; 35:120-124.

29. Holly EA, Palefsky JM Factors related to risk of penile cancer: new evidence from a study in the Pacific Northwest. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:2-4.

30. Jakobsson B, Esbjorner E, Hansson S. Minimum incidence and diagnostic rate of first urinary tract infection. Pediatrics. 1999 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):222-6.

31. Jayanthi VR, Burns JE, Koff SA. Postneonatal circumcision with local anesthesia: a cost-effective alternative. J Urol. 1999 Apr;161(4):1301-3.

32. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998.

33. Kalcev B Circumcision and personal hygiene in school boys. Med Officer 1964; 112:171-173.

34. Kelly R, Kiwanuka N, Wawer MJ, et al. Age of male circumcision and risk of prevalent HIV infection in rural Uganda. AIDS Online. 1999;13:399-405. Electronic article.

35. Kochen M, McCurdy S Circumcision and the risk of cancer of the penis: a life-table analysis. Am J Dis Child 1980; 134:484-486.

36. Kreiss JK, Hopkins SG The association between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus infection among homosexual men. J Infect Dis 1993; 168:1404-1408.

37. Krieger N Overcoming the absence of sociodemographic data in medical records: validation and application of a census-based methodology. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:703-710.

38. Kuhnle U, Guariso G, Sonega M, Hinkel GK, Hubl W, Armanini D. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism in obstructive renal disease with transient reduction of lymphocytic aldosterone receptors. Results in two affected infants. Horm Res. 1993;39(3-4):152-5.

39. Learman LA. Neonatal circumcision: a dispassionate analysis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec;42(4):849-59. Review.

40. Laumann EO, Masi CM, Zuckerman EW Circumcision in the United States: prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice. JAMA 1997; 277:1052-1057.

41. Lawler FH, Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR. Circumcision: a decision analysis of its medical value. Fam Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;23(8):587-93. Review.

42. Lohr JA The foreskin and urinary tract infections. J Pediatr 1989; 114:502-504.

43. Maden C, Sherman KJ, Beckmann AM, History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85:19-24.

44. Malek RS, Goellner JR, Smith TF, Espy MJ, Cupp MR Human papillomavirus infection and intraepithelial, in situ, and invasive carcinoma of penis [published erratum appears in Urology. 1994;43:following table of contents]. Urology 1993; 42:159-170.

45. Mallon E, Hawkins D, Dinneen M, Francics N, Fearfield L, Newson R, Bunker C. Circumcision and genital dermatoses. Arch Dermatol. 2000 Mar;136(3):350-4.

46. Melzi ML, Guez S, Sersale G, Terzi F, Secco E, Marra G, Tirelli AS, Assael BM. Acute pyelonephritis as a cause of hyponatremia/hyperkalemia in young infants with urinary tract malformations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995 Jan;14(1):56-9.

47. Miller CJ, Vogel P, Alexander NJ, Dandekar S, Hendrickx AG, Marx PA Pathology and localization of simian immunodeficiency virus in the reproductive tract of chronically infected male rhesus macaques. Lab Invest 1994; 70:255-262.

48. Moses S, Bailey RC, Ronald AR Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks. Sex Transm Infect 1998; 74:368-373.

49. Moses S, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR, Plummer FA Geographical patterns of male circumcision practices in Africa: association with HIV seroprevalence. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19:693-697

50. Moses S, Plummer FA Health education, counseling, and the underlying causes of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Care 1994; 6:123-127.

51. Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJD, Ronald AR. The association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection: a review of the epidemiological data. Sex Transm Dis 1994; 21:201-210.

53. Ornellas AA, Seixas ALC, Marota A, Wisnescky A, Campos F, de Moraes JR Surgical treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: retrospective analysis of 350 cases. J Urol 1994; 151:1244-1249

54. Oster J Further fate of the foreskin: incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish school-boys. Arch Dis Child 1968; 43:200-203.

55. Owor R Carcinoma of the penis in Uganda. IARC Sci Publ 1984; 63:493-497.

56. Patterson JW, Kao GF, Graham JH, Helwig EB Bowenoid papulosis: a clinicopathologic study with ultrastructural observations. Cancer 1986; 57:823-836.

57. Pediatricians turn away from circumcision. CNN. March 1, 1999. Online version

58. Pepin J, Plummer FA, Brunham RC, Piot P, Cameron DW, Ronald AR The interaction of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases: an opportunity for intervention. AIDS 1989; 3:3-9

59. Perkins CI, Cohen R, Morris CR, et al. Cancer in California: 1988-1995. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Health Services, Cancer Surveillance Section; 1998

60. Plotkin SA, Mortimer EA Jr. Vaccines. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1994

61. Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:921-9.

62. Ray GT, Collin F, Lieu T, Fireman B, Colby CJ, Quesenberry CP, Van den Eeden. SK, Selby JV. The cost of health conditions in a health maintenance organization. Med Care Res Rev. 2000 Mar;57(1):92-109.

63. Ries LAG, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Edwards BK, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1995. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1998

64. Ritter J. Circumcision benefits disputed. Chicago Sun-Times. March 2, 1999. Online version

65. Roberts JA Does circumcision prevent urinary tract infection. J Urol 1986; 135:991-992

66. Rodriguez-Soriano J, Vallo A, Quintela MJ, Oliveros R, Ubetagoyena M. Normokalaemic pseudohypoaldosteronism is present in children with acute pyelonephritis. Acta Paediatr. 1992 May;81(5):402-6.

67. Rodriguez-Soriano J, Vallo A, Oliveros R, Castillo G. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism secondary to obstructive uropathy in infancy. J Pediatr. 1983 Sep;103(3):375-80.

68. Rushton HG, Majd M Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of pyelonephritis and scarring: a review of experimental and clinical studies. J Urol 1992; 148:1726-1732

69. Rushton HG, Majd M Pyelonephritis in male infants: how important is the foreskin? J Urol 1992; 148:733-738

70. Rushton HG, Majd M, Jantausch B, Wiedermann BL, Belman AB. Renal scarring following reflux and nonreflux pyelonephritis in children: evaluation with 99 mtechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. J Urol. 1992;147:1327-1332. [Published erratum appears in J Urol. 1992;148:898]

71. Sandeman TF Carcinoma penis [published erratum appears in Australas Radiol. 1990;34:187]. Australas Radiol 1990;34:12-16.

72. Schlager TA, Hendley JO, Dudley SM, Hayden GF, Lohr JA Explanation for false-positive urine cultures obtained by bag technique. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149:170-173.

73. Schoen EJ. Benefits of newborn circumcision: is Europe ignoring medical evidence? Arch Dis Child 1997; 77:258-260

74. Schoen EJ. The relationship between circumcision and cancer of the penis. CA Cancer J Clin 1991; 41:306-309.

75. Schoen EJ, Wiswell TE, Moses S. New policy on circumcision- cause for concern. Pediatrics 2000;105:620-23.

76. Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, Ray T. Circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTIs) during the first year of life in a large HMO. J Invest Med. 1999;47:26A.

77. Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, Ray T. Newborn circumcision decreases incidence and costs of urinary tract infections during the first year of life. Pediatrics 2000;105:789-793

78. Schoen EJ, Oehrli M, Colby CJ, Machin G. The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer. Pediatrics. 2000;105(3).

79. Schoolnik GK How Escherichia coli infects the urinary tract. N Engl J Med 1989; 320:804-805

80. Selby JV, Ray GT, Zhang D, Colby CJ The excess costs of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus in a managed care population. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:1396-1402

81. Shaw KN, Gorelick M, McGowan KL, Yakscoe NM, Schwartz JS. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in febrile young children in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 1998;102(2). URL:

82. Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Gakinya MN, Human immunodeficiency virus infection among men with sexually transmitted diseases: experience from a center in Africa. N Engl J Med 1988; 319:274-278

83. Sloan, FA. Valuing Health Care: Costs, Benefits, and Effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals and Other Medical Technologies. Cambridge University Press. December 1994

84. Smellie JM Management of children with severe vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 1992; 148:1676-1678

85. Spach DH, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE Lack of circumcision increases the risk of urinary tract infection in young men. JAMA 1992; 267:679-681 [Medline]

86. Stokland E, Hellström M, Jacobsson B, Jodal U, Sixt R Renal damage one year after first urinary tract infection: role of dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. J Pediatr 1996; 129:815-820.

87. To T, Agha M, Dick PT, Feldman W. Cohort study on circumcision of newborn boys and subsequent risk of urinary-tract infection. Lancet. 1998 Dec 5;352(9143):1813-6.

88. Van Howe RS. Is circumcision healthy? Priorities. 1997;9:25,27,29.

89. Warner E, Strashin E. Benefits and risks of circumcision. Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Nov 1;125(9):967-76, 992. Review.

90. Wawer MJ, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Control of sexually transmitted diseases for AIDS prevention in Uganda: a randomized community trial. Rakai Project Study Group. Lancet 1999; 353:525-535.

91. Williamson ML, Williamson PS Women’s preferences for penile circumcision in sexual partners. J Sex Educ Ther 1988; 14:8-12.

92. Winberg J Progressive renal damage from infection with or without reflux. J Urol 1992; 148:1733-1734.

94. Wiswell TE Circumcision circumspection. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1244-1245

95. Wiswell TE Neonatal circumcision: a current appraisal. Focus Opin Pediatr 1995; 1:93-99

96. Wiswell TE, Hachey WE. Urinary tract infections and the uncircumcised state: an update. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1993;32:130-134

97. Wiswell TE, John K Lattimer lecture: prepuce presence portends prevalence of potentially perilous periurethral pathogens. J Urol 1992; 148:739-742

98. Wiswell TE, Miller GM, Gelston HM Jr, Jones SK, Clemmings AF. Effect of circumcision status on periurethral bacterial flora during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 988;113:442-446

99. Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD Corroborative evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics 1986; 78:96-99

100. Wiswell TE, Tencer HL, Welch CA, Chamberlain JL Circumcision in children beyond the neonatal period. Pediatrics 1993; 92:791-793

101. Wiswell TE, Enzenauer RW, Holton ME, Cornish JD, Hankins CT Declining frequency of circumcision: implications for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female sex ratio of urinary tract infections in early infancy. Pediatrics 1987; 79:338-342

102. Wolbarst AL. Circumcision and penile cancer. Lancet 1932; 1:150-153

103. Brian Morris website:

104. Circumcision Information from Dr. Gerald Weiss, M.D

105. Circumcison The Surical Procedure

106. circumcision: In Favour of Circumcision

107. The Circumcision Information and Resource Pages